The accuracy of 2D ultrasound prenatal intercourse determination

The accuracy of 2D ultrasound prenatal intercourse determination

Back Ground:

Women that are pregnant have now been interested in learning the sex of these unborn youngster. The advent of ultrasound, its application into medication, and also the revolutionary alterations in its quality and function has resulted in the capability to assign a intercourse to those unborn young ones, therefore allaying the anxiety of those ladies however with consequent emergent ethical, ethical, psycho-social, and issues that are medico-legal. The objectives had been to look for the precision of sonographic prenatal intercourse determination, perform binary category test, while the effect it’s, including mis-diagnosis.

Materials and techniques:

A potential prenatal sonographic intercourse determination research on 205 consecutive consenting expectant mothers aged 20-40 years in a personal medical center in Benin between August 2010 and October 2011. Questionnaires had been administered to these women prior to and after the scan therefore the females were told the intercourse for the fetuses and their feelings regarding the determined intercourse recorded. The intercourse at delivery was verified and set alongside the scan determined gender by their instance telephone and note. Appropriate talks through the scan and down the road had been recorded regarding the questionnaires. The package that is statistical was SPSS variation 17 and binary classification tests had been done.

The sensitiveness (98.2%) and binary category components values of prenatal intercourse determination had been high because of the sensitiveness of detecting a lady more than compared to men. Two males had been misdiagnosed as females. The majority of the ladies had been delighted even if the intercourse differed from that which they desired.


Prenatal sonographic intercourse determination possesses high sensitiveness index. Consequently we advocate its usage just before more sex that is invasive.


Ultrasound is employed in many components of the global globe for prenatal intercourse dedication. Indication for prenatal intercourse determination could be nonmedical or medical. The indication that is medical its usage use in families prone to x-linked problems, testicular feminization problem, pseudo-hermaphroditism, vaginal anomalies, ambiguous genitalia, and dedication of zygosity in numerous maternity. 1 – 5 In families predisposed to x-linked problems it contributes to the lowering of invasive procedures as sonographic prenatal determined females will never require further invasive screening that is genetic. The nonmedical reasons provided by females for sonographic intercourse determination consist of preparturition shopping, fascination, husband/relatives’ demand, and also to verify suspicion. 4

First trimester sonographic prenatal sex determination can be carried out from 11 days gestation with the way for the genital tubercle while the “sagittal indication.” The downward way of this tubercle is known as a lady even though the upward way a male. 1 ,2 In sagittal indication, study of the vaginal area into the midline sagittal air plane shows a caudal notch in females and a cranial notch in men. 6 ,7 Ultrasound scan carried out in the next and trimester that is third increased exposure of visualization regarding the physiology for the genitals or pelvic structure in determining the fetal intercourse. During the early magazines on sonographic prenatal gender project male sex ended up being identified by the existence for the penis and scrotum while females had been because of the lack of both scrotum and penis. 8 But with improved contemporary ultrasound quality technology visualization associated with the vulva, clitoris, and labia is considered a lady fetus whereas demonstration regarding the scrotum, penis, descended testicles, and penile midline raphe is assigned to men. Visualization regarding the interior pelvic structures for the fetus including the uterus and ovaries also assists in assigning sex that is appropriate the fetus.

Regrettably very first trimester ultrasound intercourse determination has significant false negative price. 2 ,9 tests done within the second trimester have actually better sensitiveness values. 9 The sensitiveness of sonographic determined intercourse is based on the operator, device, and habitus. Enhancement into the sensitiveness value increases with a high proficiency and experience in addition to top-quality device. Improperly determined intercourse may have some emotional impacts on the household. 2 ergo an effort needs to be meant to spot an accurate intercourse type in the fetus. Hence we undertook this research to look for the prenatal accuracy that is sonographic sensitiveness pattern inside our environment.


This is certainly a study that is prospective at a personal medical center in Benin from August 2010 to Oct 2011. Approval when it comes to research ended up being tried and awarded through the radiology division therefore the administration (which will act as the ethical board) for the personal institution in which the research ended up being carried out. When you look at the research 205 consecutive consenting expectant mothers with pregnancies into the second or 3rd trimester which were introduced for obstetric ultrasound had the process explained for them and questionnaires administered after signing the consent section that is informed. Sonographic sex that is prenatal had been conducted during these consenting ladies as well as the determined sex communicated for them. These people were then expected the way they felt in regards to the determined intercourse and their emotions recorded. Information such as phone figures, gestational age at scan time, calculated date of delivery, instance note quantity, as well as other appropriate information had been entered in to the questionnaires. Their instance records had been retrieved about 3 months following the expected date of distribution additionally the intercourse regarding the infant at delivery entered to their questionnaires. The patients were additionally contacted by phone as well as the sex at delivery confirmed with relevant responses entered in to the questionnaires. The intercourse at delivery ended up being compared to the prenatal sonographic determined intercourse.

The ultrasound device utilized ended up being Fukuda Denshi FF Sonic, UF-4100, Tokyo, 2007 The scan had been done by one of many scientists. Recognition regarding the vulva, clitoris, and labia had been utilized to assign feminine intercourse to the fetus Figure 1 . For male fetuses visualization regarding the scrotum, testicles, and penile shaft ended up being utilized Figure 2 . The women were asked how they felt after knowing the fetal sex after the scan. Their reactions had been then entered in to the questionnaires. Relevant oral communications were additionally recorded within the questionnaires as other findings.

Female genitalia, encircled

Male fetal outside genitalia (circled)

The information had been analyzed SPSS that is using version. Descriptive analysis was done in the patients’ biodata and gestation associated with the pregnancies. Binary category test such as for example sensitiveness, specificity, good predictive value, negative predictive value, and precision had been done for either fetal intercourse and the outcomes tabulated. a test that is chi-square also through with significant value set at 0.05.

2 hundred and five women that are pregnant in this research with all the youngest aged two decades whilst the earliest 40 years. The age that is average of participants had been 29.5 years; median 29 years; and mode 28 years. The time that is mean that the scans had been carried out is at 29.2 months gestation; median, 30 days gestation; mode, 35 days gestation. The scan that is earliest is at 17 months of gestation as the latest is at 40 months with all the range spanning 23 months Figure 3 .

Histogram showing the frequencies and gestational many years at which obstetric scans had been done

Most of the females had been accurately detected sonographically as females, but 2 men had been erroneously reported as females dining dining Table 1 . Both of these men had been scanned at 33 and 36 months of gestation. The predictive that is positive for ultrasound male intercourse detection is 100% Table 2 . It hence ensures that then the probability of being male is 100% if on ultrasound a male sex is detected,. Having said that then the probability is 97.9% that it may turn out to be a female at birth if sonographically a female sex is detected. Additionally, the sensitiveness, specificity, and precision for either intercourse are high Table 2 .

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